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ASCAP (American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers)
This is a performing rights organization in the United States comprising more than 80,000 musicians, music publishers, and songwriters. The stated function of ASCAP is to protect the rights of its members by licensing and collecting and distributing royalties for the public performances of members' copyrighted works.
Audio ads are audio advertisements, for Live365 or any of our partners, that are inserted into some of the broadcasts available on the Live365 service. Audio ads may vary in length and may include commercial advertisements, public service announcements (also called PSAs) and station identifications.
Audio quality is the perceived quality of audio, in particular an audio broadcast, as experienced by a listener. Internet audio broadcasts often span a range of audio quality, for many different reasons, including: (a) the bitrate at which audio files are encoded; (b) how correctly or how well the audio files have been encoded; (c) how many hops the broadcast must make between leaving the broadcaster and reaching the listener; (d) whether there is significant traffic congestion for the transmitted data on the path of transmission; (e) whether any hardware (routers, switches, etc.) employed along the data transmission path is malfunctioning, or whether any software residing on such hardware is malfunctioning; (f) the connection speed and reliability of both the broadcaster and the listener; (g) the performance characteristics of the streaming server software which is being used to convey the broadcast from broadcaster to listener; (h) the performance characteristics of the audio player software being used by the listener; (i) the quality of speakers used by the listener; and (j) whether the listener is running any other software or applications on the listening device, which may impact the device's ability to process and play the incoming broadcast data without delay.
Audio files are files containing data that can be both "read" and "played" to produce sound, as opposed, for example, to text. Audio files can be read by computers and similar devices, and can be saved, stored or transmitted.
An audio player generally refers to either software that resides on a computer or similar device and which can read and play audio files, or to the hardware (combined storage module, speaker, controls, etc.) that is used to play such files. See player below.
Refers to the list of tracks selected to be played in an On-Demand Audio broadcast.
Bandwidth is the total capacity for data transfer that can be sent through a given network connection. It is often measured in thousands of bits per second (kbps). Different network connections may have varying bandwidth; for example, a modem or dial-up connection typically has narrow, or low bandwidth, while a DSL, T-1 or similar "always on" connection typically has high bandwidth.
Refers to the broadcasting mode where all server space and bandwidth are provided by Live365. Broadcasters upload their MP3 files directly to Live365 servers, which stream a playlist comprised of these files in a looped broadcast over the Internet. Uses Studio365 and Studio365-Loader to broadcast. Download Broadcasting Tools
Each Internet connection speed has a corresponding bitrate. The bitrate of a data transmission is represented by the maximum number of bits (measured in thousands of bits per second, or kbps) that can be transmitted at that connection speed. The higher the bitrate is, the greater is the amount of data that can be transmitted in the same amount of time. For audio broadcasts, a higher bitrate typically means better audio quality. Note, though, that audio quality also depends on many other things (see above), and that if, for example, a listener is connecting at a low connection speed but the audio files have been encoded at a higher bitrate usually intended for a high connection speed, the listener may experience skipping or other audio problems.
BMI (Broadcast Music, Inc.)
This is a performing rights organization that represents songwriters, musical theatre, composers, publishers, film and classical music. The stated function of BMI is to protect the rights of its members by licensing and collecting and distributing royalties for the public performances of members' copyrighted works.
Historically, a broadcast was the transmission of a data-filled signal (in the case of radio, an audio signal) through the air, within a limited geographic area. A radio station, for example, might be able to broadcast a program within a radius of 200 kilometers. An Internet broadcast, in comparison, is a transmission of streaming audio data through Internet connections, to any listener worldwide who maintains an Internet connection and who wishes to receive such data. Internet broadcasts do not imply the transmission of an audio file in a form that can be saved or stored by the listener. The transmission is typically made and received in real time (with some delays for transmission and buffering) and is not retained on the audio player of the listener. Live365 offers several broadcasting methods for its broadcasters, including "live" from their computers, "basic" from audio files that the broadcasters have uploaded to Live365's servers, and "relay", which originate on another site but can be listed in Live365's broadcast directory.
Broadcaster Profiles allow broadcasters on Live365 to share with their audience information about themselves, their broadcasts, their audio interests and favorite broadcasters, how they may be contacted, and related matters of interest. Listeners are able to learn more about a given station or the creator of that station by referring to the broadcaster profile. Click the station title to visit the station page and broadcaster profile.
When audio data is being transmitted between two connected devices (such as Live365's servers or a broadcaster's computer, and a listener's computer), there is often a short period of time before the receiving device begins to play the audio it receives. The delay is caused as the receiving device gathers a large enough block of data not only to allow it to begin playing, but also to allow it to hold a small amount of additional data on hand ready to play as it is needed. Typically, buffering is intended to ensure that the receiving device does not find itself suddenly lacking enough data on hand to continue playing without interruption or skipping. There are somewhat different buffering characteristics for different audio player software.
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Commercial broadcasters appearing on Live365's service are commercial artists or AM / FM Radio Stations.
Connection speed depends on whether you have a dial-up modem, DSL, Cable, T-1 (or faster) connection. A listener can generally hear all broadcasts that are encoded at less than or equal to the listener's connection speed.
Before listening to any Live365 broadcasts, a listener should make sure his or her computer has audio player software installed (one capable of playing MP3 files), and that the appropriate player is set as the "default" player. The default player will automatically open when a Live365 broadcast is selected for play (by clicking on the station name or the speaker icon). Default players can be changed at any time. Listeners can select or change their default player here.
Live365 maintains and offers to its listeners and broadcasters the largest directory of broadcasts on the Internet. The directory's powerful search, navigation and personalization features are constantly being improved and expanded.
DMCA (Digital Millenium Copyright Act)
The DMCA is a law in the United States that stipulates various copyright related rules that apply to digital broadcasting and digital music, among other things. (more info)
To download data means to receive it in digital form from another source. A download refers to either the file that has been received in such manner, or the action of transferring such data file. The most commonly referred to form of downloading involves the transfer of an audio file from one source to a receiving computer, such that the receiving computer keeps a copy of the data received and holds that copy accessible for the listener to play or to make additional copies. The other form of downloading is similar to traditional broadcast radio, where a stream of data is received and can be listened to in real time, but is not copied or retained on the receiving computer or other device. As such, the audio data received cannot be accessed at a later time by the listener, nor can it be easily copied and distributed to others. Internet broadcasting generally takes this second form of downloading.
Digital Subscriber Line, or DSL, is a technology for bringing high-bandwidth connectivity to homes and small businesses over existing telephone lines. A broadcast that is identified in the Live365 directory as T1/DSL is available to all listeners who have either a T1 or DSL connection to the Internet.
A station was selected as a Featured Broadcast, Recommended Station, or Editor's Station Pick.
To encode audio files means to compress the WAV files created by rippers into MP3 files. There are several ways to do this. WAV files are most commonly converted into MP3 files automatically when you use a program like iTunes or Windows Media Player.
An encoder is software that converts the WAV files created by rippers into MP3s.
Flash is a proprietary technology that delivers audio and video over the Web. To view Flash animations in Web pages, a viewer must download and install the Flash plug-in from the Macromedia.com site.
A firewall prevents computers from being attacked and helps to protect the security of data that resides on those computers. Firewalls are usually put in place by systems administrators in companies and other organizations, but are also available for home use. Firewalls often prevent certain types of data from being received, or impose limitations on what can be received.
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The Internet is a network of equipment connected in various ways, but done in such a way that data can be transmitted from (or received by) almost any point on the network to (or from) almost any other point. Usually, the data does not move directly between the transmitting and receiving points, but instead must be directed and redirected by equipment at various points along the way (similar to a passenger flying from New York to Bangkok, who may have connecting flights in Chicago, San Francisco, and Tokyo, before finally reaching the destination).
Stations listed in the Directory with an [Independent] tag were created by an independent recording artist or label.
Millions of people all over the world listen to the broadcasts available at Live365. Live365 has the world's largest radio network, with broadcasters and listeners in more than 70 countries. An Internet player is needed to listen (see default player).
Refers to the broadcasting mode where all files reside on the broadcaster's computer. Live mode allows broadcasters to change his or her playlist on the fly, add live voice between tracks, host talk shows and broadcast live performances. Uses Studio365-Live to broadcast. Download Studio365-Live.
When a Live365 stored broadcast "loops," it begins again at the start of the playlist as soon as it has finished playing the playlist. Live broadcasts are not typically looped. Studio365 "basic" broadcasts are looped, but broadcasters are able to rearrange, delete and add audio files at any time to keep their broadcasts fresh and to respond to the wishes of their audience.
MP3 stands for Motion Picture Experts Group, Audio Layer 3. MP3 is a digital audio compression format reduces the volume of original sound data from a CD by a factor of 12 without significant loss of sound quality. This makes the audio file containing such data smaller and easier to store and to transmit. MP3 files can be created by ripping a CD (converting from WAV files) and saving to a computer's hard drive. MP3 files can also stream over the Internet. For more information about MPEG, see www.mpeg.org.
Live365 provides an MP3 Library for broadcasters, permitting them to store audio files. Once the audio files have been uploaded to our servers, they are stored in the broadcaster's MP3 library and are used by the broadcaster to create the station playlist.
The official Internet radio station of a major label recording artist or label.
A form of broadcasting on Live365 that allows broadcasters to offer original and/or licensed content (programs, speeches, announcements, interviews, original music and more) to listeners on an "as demanded" basis. The listeners can click on each discrete audio track and listen from beginning to end. More info and Demo on On-Demand Audio.
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An MP3 player is required in order to play MP3 files, whether streaming or downloaded. MP3s can be played on a portable device (like an iPod), or on a computer with audio player software, such as RealPlayer or Windows Media Player. To listen to Live365 broadcasts, a listener must have a player. For more information, please see the help section.
Player365 is a browser plug-in, developed by Live365, that enables your browser to play Live365 audio. Although other players are supported by Live365, Player365 is the recommended one for the best listening experience possible. To use Player365 visit Listener Settings and select Player365 or visit the Player365 download page for more information.
Refers to the list of tracks selected to be broadcast. In Basic Mode, the playlist is created in Studio365. It is possible for broadcasters to create a playlist in Live mode as well, using Studio365-Live. In Basic mode, tracks must be available in the broadcasters MP3 library in order to be broadcast from any given playlist.
The player window is the mini-browser window that opens for users of the Live365 service when they click on a speaker icon. The player window typically displays the last few tracks from that broadcast's playlist.
A plug-in is a distinct software module, usually fairly small, which is intended to enhance or improve one or more features or functions of (or to add new features and functions to) a larger software application that a person already has. The plug-in is typically downloaded over the Internet and is incorporated automatically, or with minimum effort, into the larger application.
Presets are stations that a listener has saved, so the listener can find them again easily in future visits to Live365. Listeners must sign up in order to use this powerful feature. Presets on Live365 are similar in nature to the presets that people use to save their favorite stations on car radios.
Live365 allows not only individuals to broadcast, but also facilitates Internet broadcasting on its service by commercial and public radio stations, civic and religious organizations, political, governmental and non-governmental groups, clubs, schools, businesses and others. These offerings by non-individual broadcasters are referred to as PRO Broadcast. PRO Broadcast is a paid service, where broadcasters can select the features and functions that have value to them. For more information on PRO Broadcast, please visit the Live365 PRO website.
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If you are a listener and you find a Live365 station that you would like a friend to hear, you can click on the envelop icon in the player window to email your friend a link to that station. If you are a broadcaster, you can use RadioCards as a means of promoting your station to friends, family and other interested listeners.
Refers to the broadcasting mode wherein a broadcaster is currently using another site to stream his or her broadcast. To configure a relay broadcast, the broadcaster sets the IP address of a non-Live365 streaming server which allows that broadcast to be heard by all Live365 listeners.
A relay broadcast is one that is served from a remote server (not belonging to Live365) and is re-routed through the Live365 servers to listeners using the Live365 directory. Relay broadcasts do not originate from Live365.
A broadcaster is awarded a One-Time Bounty when a new Preferred Member listener subscribes in order to gain access to -- or show support for -- the broadcaster's station. Each One-Time Bounty is $1.50. A broadcaster who takes an active role in recruiting Preferred Member listeners can greatly subsidize his or her broadcasting costs!
The actual Rewards total that your payment is based upon is taken as a "snap shot" of your VIP Preferred Members' Listening Hours and your accumulated Rewards Bounties on the last day of each month. The Rewards credit is then applied to the next month's balance.
RIAA (Recording Industry Association of America)
The RIAA is a trade group that represents the major labels in the United States recording industry. The RIAA is concerned about pirating music over the Internet, and are currently engaged in several legal battles about this.
To "rip a CD" is to copy the audio tracks from a CD onto a computer's hard drive. The resulting files are in a format known as WAV files. In order to use these audio files to broadcast at Live365, a broadcaster must encode the WAV files into the MP3 format. Studio365 does this automatically. For more information on ripping, please refer to the Studio365 section of our website. Many programs are available that will "rip" CDs, including XING, iTunes, AudioCatalyst and many others. Some programs, like XING, MusicMatch, and iTunes, rip songs from the CD and encode your songs into MP3 format all in one step. It is very important to take care to follow the ripping process precisely, to ensure optimum audio quality for listeners.
A ripper is software that rips CDs (see Rip above).
Search is one way in which broadcasts that a listener may be interested in can be found. Live365 offers a powerful search function, helping users to find specific broadcasts or broadcasts that closely match a user's interests.
When a web page is shown or an audio stream is delivered, the computer receiving this data is communicating through the Internet with another computer known as a server. A server is a computer (often large, powerful or operating at high speed) that stores and delivers (serves) data to the computer and user that request it.
SESAC (The Society of European Stage Authors and Composers)
SESAC, formed in 1930, is the second oldest performing rights group in the United States. SESAC represents many jazz and country artists and songwriters. Its stated function is to protect the rights of its members by licensing and collecting and distributing royalties for the public performances of members' copyrighted works.
Many audio players offer users the ability to customize the look and feel of their audio players, by letting them change the way the player is visually represented on the computer monitor. This appearance and the alternatives that are offered are called skins. Radio365 includes customizable skins
Audio and video that are played immediately upon receipt over the Internet are referred to as streams, as contrasted with downloads. A stream is NOT stored as a file on the receiving computer or audio device. Streaming audio is often a faster and more satisfying way to listen to music on the web, as compared with downloading, which can be time consuming, uses up local storage, and may in some instances violate the rights of musicians and others.
Studio365 is one of the broadcasting tools that broadcasters on Live365 can use. This tool allows broadcasters to create, maintain and offer their audience a continuous, 24-hour broadcast. The tool also provides broadcasters with bandwidth and storage space on Live365's servers. To create your own Studio365 broadcast, simply sign up as a broadcaster. Then, upload your MP3 files to the secure MP3 Library. From there, you can broadcast, arrange, adjust and update your playlist.
Studio365-Live is one of the broadcasting tools that broadcasters on Live365 can use. This tool allows broadcasters to broadcast live from their computer, and to change the playlist "on the fly", to add live voice in between songs, to broadcast live talk shows or news, and maintain the broadcaster's playlist on his or her own computer. To create your own Studio365-Live broadcast, simply sign up as a broadcaster. You may download Studio365-Live here, or go to the Studio365-Live page for more info.
Studio365-Loader is a software application (for PCs only) that allows a broadcaster to upload MP3 files into his or her Music Library. Studio365-Loader converts MP3 files for the selected connection speed, and uploads those files. Once the audio files have been uploaded, the broadcaster can access them directly in the Live365 secure MP3 Library. You may download Studio365-Loader here.
A T-1 line is a telephone line connection used for heavy telephone traffic, or for computer networks linked directly to the Internet. T-1 is a fast Internet connection, and is often used by companies with high Internet and file transfer demands. This connection speed enables the sending and receiving of large graphic, sound, and video files quickly.
Total Listening Hours (TLH)
The combined hours that Live365 visitors listened to a single station during the last 30 days (standard and ad-free listeners combined).
When a file is uploaded, a copy is made of the file that exists locally on a hard drive and that copy is transferred from the hard drive (uploaded) to a remote server. To upload is to send a file, while to download is to receive a file. When using Studio365, for example, a broadcaster uploads his or her selected MP3 files onto the Live365 servers.
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